Every tyre has a different tread pattern with various components which yield various benefits, from improved dry traction, to reduced aquaplaning.
Sipes: Small, narrow voids in tread, allowing the blocks to move while under load between the rim and the road, to reduce shear stress.
Dimples: Typically located towards the outer edge of the tread, these small indentations help to improve cooling.
Ribs: A solid, straight line of tread around the circumference, creating a contact band at all times with the road.
Blocks: The main function of the blocks are to provide the tyre with traction, and make up the majority of the tread.
Grooves: Deep voids in the tyre, typically around the entire circumference, to aid in water channelling and dispersion.
Shoulder: The contact section between the sidewall and the tread, that aids in contact with the road during cornering.